Genotyping Patent Claims Do Not Escape The Reach of s. 101
In Genetic Veterinary Sciences, Inc. v. Laboklin GMBH & Co., the University of Berlin, App. No. 2018-1565 (Fed. Cir., Aug. 9, 2019), a Fed. Cir. panel affirmed the district court’s JMOL ruling that the claims of the University’s U.S. Pat. No. 9,157,114 were patent-ineligible because they merely involved the discovery of a natural phenomenon. Interestingly, the Judges on the panel were Wallach, Hughes and Stoll, all of whom dissented from the refusal of the Fed. Cir. to rehear the Athena decision en banc. However, Athena was a straightforward “If A, then B” diagnostic test, while the claims of the ‘114 patent were not written as diagnostic claims, but as “method of genotyping” claims:
- An in vivo method for genotyping a Labrador Retriever comprising: a) obtaining a biological sample from the Labrador Retriever, b) genotyping a SUV39H2 gene encoding the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:1[;] and c) detecting the presence of a replacement of a nucleotide T with a nucleotide G at position 972 of SEQ ID NO:2.
This “genotyping method” detected a single point mutation in the gene that confirms the presence of a skin condition, HNPK, in the dog, that is heritable if both parents possess the mutation. It can also be used to confirm whether or not a skin condition present in the dog is HNPK. However, the absence in the claim of a step directed to drawing a diagnostic conclusion from the presence of the mutation, while in accord with the PTO’s 2014 101 Guidance, did not save this claim from the judicial exception prohibiting claiming a law of nature. Rather, the claim jumped from a legal frying pan of Athena into the legal fire of Ariosa, that bars patenting the mere discovery or observation of a natural phenomenon:
“Similarly [to Ariosa], In re BRCA1 – & BRCA2-Based Hereditary Cancer Test Patent Litigation, we concluded that the claims were directed to a patent ineligible law of nature because the claims’ “methods, directed to identification of alterations of the gene, require[d] merely comparing the patient’s gene with the wild–type gene and identifying any differences that ar[o]se”. 774 Fed.. Cir.755, 763 (Fed. Cir. 2014). In each of these cases, the end result of the process, the essence of the whole, [Ed. note: Is this some new poetic legal standard?] was a patent-ineligible concept”. [Ed. note: “concept” seems to be veering into abstract idea-land.]…Taken together, the plain language of claim 1 demonstrates that it is directed to nothing more than ‘observing or identifying’ the natural phenomenon of a mutation in the SUV39H2 gene….Thus the asserted claims are directed to a natural phenomenon at Alice step 1.”
Since the next section of the opinion is entitled “The Asserted Claims Do Not Recite an Inventive Concept”, you know this opinion is going to end badly for Labokin, the exclusive licensee of the university patent. Given that this opinion was written by the dissenters in the Athena petition for rehearing in banc, might this case turned out differently? Could the existence of the mutation in some of the SUV39H2 genes have been part of a public data base but its significance be unknown until the inventor discovered that the mutation could be correlated to the presence of HPNK? In other words, could the panel have begun by giving weight to the fact that one could observe the mutation without knowing what it means?
To get “credit” for the discovery of the utility of the mutation, claim 1, at the least, would need a mental process step that draws a diagnostic conclusion, a la Athena. Now the Athena dissenters would argue that the discovery of the utility of the correlation should provide the “inventive step” required by Alice step 2. But the Fed. Cir.’s Meriel decision precludes that outcome, since that panel ruled that the discovery of the utility of a correlation cannot meet the “inventive step” requirement. (Genetics Techs. v. Meriel is cited at page 25 of the slip opinion, but only as supporting a finding a lack of inventive step when the laboratory techniques employed to carry out the diagnostic procedure are routine, conventional, etc.)
So to get this claim past the “inventive concept” gatekeepers, it would also need to recite a positive action step of some sort. Here, the panel cites and distinguishes Vanda because it taught “a specific method of treatment for specific patients, using a specific compound at specific doses to achieve a specific outcome.” Remember, the claims of Vanda recited a first genotyping step, and then drawing a conclusion from that step, but didn’t stop there. This case did not give the dissenters much to work with, so they wrote a decision that Siri could have come up with. This case could at least have taken a swing at the failure of the Alice test to consider the claim elements in ordered combination. Judge Newman may yet get to write for a panel that has the nerve to distinguish Mayo and to find that an “If A, then B” diagnostic claim based on the discovery if the utility of a natural correlation is patent eligible because the steps, considered as a whole, are not conventional or well-known to the art.
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